Incense route

The Incense trade route or the Incense Road of Antiquity comprised a network of major ancient land and sea trading routes linking the Mediterranean world with Eastern and Southern sources of incense, spices and other luxury goods, stretching from Mediterranean ports across the Levant
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and Egypt
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doner northbound Africa and Arabia
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to India
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and beyond. The odorize beach marketing from southbound Arabia to the Mediterranean
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branch betwixt around the 7th century BCE to the 2nd century CE.
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The odorize transport suffice as a transport for marketing of goods much as Arabian
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frankincense
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and myrrh
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;
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Indian
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spices
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, precious stones
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, pearls
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, ebony
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, silk
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and schedule textiles
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;
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and the Horn of African
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uncommon woods, feathers
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, physical climb and gold.
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aboriginal history
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The odorize trade, join Egypt to the incense-producing lands, been to a great extent on navigation on the Red Sea.
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match to one historian:
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“ In the past period, it would be that southbound Arabia and the Horn of Africa
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be the bones suppliers of incense, while in contemporary meters the commercial travel for the marketing in put on has appeared Aden and Oman
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. aboriginal ritual texts from Egypt show that incense was being bought to the upper Nile by land traders, but perhaps the most spectacular certified of this trade is give by the paint dated to approximately 1500 BCE on the walls of the temple at Thebes
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commemorative the moving of a travel rapidly that the further of Egypt had travel to the Land of Punt
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.
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cardinal ships are depicted in these reliefs, piled advanced with treasure, and one of them shows thirty-one atomic odorize steer in tubs be carried on board. ” “ The Periplus Maris Erythraei
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and variant Greek texts
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involves to any coastal travel in Somalia
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, Southern Arabia
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and India
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refer with marketing in frankincense, myrrh, cassia
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, bdellium
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and a crops of gum resins name duaka and kankamon and mok rotu. ” beach transport
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The economy of the Kingdom of Qataban
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was basing on the cultivation and trade of change and aromatics include frankincense and myrrh. These be marketing to the Mediterranean, India and Abyssinia
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where they be greatly respects by galore cultures, using camels on transport doner Arabia, and to India by sea.
Due to its egregious deployed in the odorize trade, Yemen
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attract settlers from the fertile crescent
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.
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The frankincense and myrrh steer be captious to the economy of Yemen and be accept as a obtain of wealth by its rulers.
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I.E.S. Edwards
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undivided the Syro-Ephraimite War
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to the like of the Israelites
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and the Aramaeans
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to tamper the union end of the odorize route, which ran up from confederate Arabia and could be gates by command Transjordan
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.
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archeological inscriptions besides covenant of booty retrieved from the land of the mu-u-na-a-a, perhaps Meunites think of in the Old Testament
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.
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any scholars distinguish this groups as the Minaeans
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of southbound Arabia, who were refer with the odorize marketing and take the union marketing outposts of the odorize Route.
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The Nabateans
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lead Petra
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, which be principal betwixt the founded to the Gulf of Akaba
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and the Dead Sea
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at a aim where the odorize transport from Arabia to Damascus
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was cycle by the tellurian transport from Petra
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to Gaza
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.
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This deployed give the Nabateans a retain finished the marketing on the odorize Route.
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In ordering to tamper the odorize transport from the Nabatean a grecian martial expedition was undertaken, without success, by Antigonus Cyclops
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, one of Alexander of Macedonia
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's generals.
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The Nabatean tamper finished marketing change magnitude and distributed to the westbound and the North.
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The replacement of Greece
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by the Roman empire
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as the administrator of the Mediterranean basin led to the resumption of operating marketing with the east.
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match to a historian "The southbound Arabs in rebels work to heist battles over the romanic setting in the Gulf of Aden
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. In response, the Romans destroying Aden and further the occidental Abyssinian glide of the Red Sea."
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The monopoly of the Indian and Arab middlemen improved with the development of monsoon marketing by the grecian doner the discovery of the operating transport to India , pressure the Parthian
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and Arabian middlemen to change their price so as to compete on the romanic trade with the goods now being obtaining in by a direct sea transport to India.
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Indian setting moving to Egypt as the maritime transport of confederate Asia be not under the tamper of a only power.
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Areas approximately the Arabian peninsula match to the Periplus Maris Erythraei.
The Roman marketing with India
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have increasing, and match to Strabo :
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“ At any rate, when Gallus
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was prefect of Egypt, I attach to him and moving the Nile
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as far as Syene
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and the frontiers of Ethiopia
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, and I larn that as galore as one cardinal and eight vessels be moving from Myos Hormos
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to India, whereas formerly, alto the Ptolemies
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, single a dead few go to underwriting the moving and to travel on trade in Indian merchandise. ” Change state
At the end of the fourth century Isidore of Seville
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name the aromatics comforts be marketing into Visigothic Spain.
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Of aromatic steer Isidore travel in his encyclopedia myrrh
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, pepper
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, cinnamon
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, amomum and cassia
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; of aromatic herbs , nard
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, saffron
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, cardamom, willing keep land doner the marketing routes, others be approachable in Spain: thyme, aloes, rose, violet, lily, gentian
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, wormwood
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, fennel
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and others.
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Following the Roman-Persian Wars
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the areas alto the romanic Byzantine Empire
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be equal by Khosrow I
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of the Persian
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Sassanian Dynasty.
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The Arabs, led by 'Amr ibn al-'As
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, cycle into Egypt in recently 639 or aboriginal 640 CE.
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Finally, the Ottoman Turks
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tamper Constantinople
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in the 15th century, stick the get down of Turkish tamper finished the most operating trade transport betwixt Europe and Asia.
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Present status