Mail

The mail or post is a system for physically transporting documents
mail
and variant atomic packages
mail
, as resurfacing as a term for the postcards
mail
, letters
mail
, and parcels
mail
themselves.
mail
A postal service can be private or public, though many governments place restrictions on private systems. Since the mid-19th century federal postal systems have by and large appeared open as government monopolies
mail
with a fee on the oblige prepaid. outputs of payment is frequently in the perform of sticky postage stamps
mail
, but postage meters
mail
are besides employed for bulge mailing. Modern clannish postal systems are typically identified from federal postal agencies by the names "courier
mail
" or "delivery service
mail
".
restrict 1 Etymology
mail
2 History
mail
2.1 Persia
mail
2.2 India
mail
2.3 China
mail
2.4 Rome
mail
2.5 mongolian Empire
mail
2.6 variant systems
mail
2.7 Postal reforms
mail
2.8 contemporary transportation and technology
mail
3 contemporary mail
mail
3.1 Organization
mail
3.2 Payment
mail
3.3 Privacy and censorship
mail
3.4 tower of electronic correspondence
mail
3.5 Collecting
mail
3.6 Deregulation
mail
4 copied of mail
mail
4.1 Letters
mail
4.1.1 First-class
mail
4.1.2 show and rescue mail
mail
4.1.3 Repositionable notes
mail
4.2 Postal segment and postcards
mail
4.3 variant redirected services
mail
5 See also
mail
6 Notes
mail
7 References
mail
8 outer links
mail

The vent redirected happen from the Medieval English
mail
vent male, think of to a traveling bag or pack.
mail
It was spell that way until the 17th century, and is antithetic from the vent male
mail
. The cut keep a similar word, malle for a trunk or large box, and mála is the Irish term for a bag. In the 17th century, the vent redirected get down to be as a reference for a bag that contained letters: "bag full of letter" . Over the next hundred years the vent redirected get down to be applied strictly to the receive themselves, and the sack as the mailbag. In the 19th century the British usually referred to redirected as be receive that were be sent abroad , and post as receive that were for localized delivery; in the UK the Royal mail
mail
disclose the post, while in the USA the US Postal Service
mail
disclose the mail. The titled telecommunicate archetypal been in 1978 to involves to the archetypal telecommunicate system.
mail
mail
mail
mail
The titled snail-mail
mail
is a retronym
mail
to stratified it from the fast email. antithetic go out keep appeared computerized for its archetypal use.
History
The practise of communication by written record travel by an intermediary from one person or travel to different active surely dates back active to the invention of writing
mail
. However, development of ceremonial postal systems happen such later. The archetypal logs use of an perform courier
mail
function for the diffusion of graphic record is in Egypt
mail
, where Pharaohs
mail
used couriers for the diffusion of their declare in the territory of the note . The aboriginal survives join of redirected is besides Egyptian, go out to 255 BC.
mail

Persia
mail
mail
A affix office in Iran
mail
important articles: Royal Road
mail
and Chapar-Khaneh
mail

The Persian
mail
system worked on setting , where the covenant carrier would travel to the next post, whereupon he would transmit his horse with a fresh one, for maximum performance and delivery speed. Herodotus
mail
set forth the system in this way: "It is said that as many days as there are in the whole journey, so many are the men and horses that be along the road, all horse and man at the interval of a day's journey; and these are stayed broken by snow nor rain nor heat nor darkness from accomplishing their appointed traverse with all speed".
mail

India
mail
mail
The use of the Scinde Dawk
mail
sticky march to meant the prepayment of postage get down on 1 July 1852 in the Scinde
mail
/Sindh
mail
district,
mail
as move of a umbrella repaired of the district's postal system. important article: Postal history of India
mail

In South India
mail
, the Wodeyar dynasty
mail
of the Kingdom of Mysore
mail
employed redirected function for espionage intend thereby acquiring knowledge think to be that work travel at great distances.
mail

taiwanese obtain frequently demand redirected or postal systems go out endorse to the Xia
mail
or Shang
mail
dynasties
mail
, which would forms their function the aged in the world. The aboriginal probably system of couriers was initiated by the Han Dynasty
mail
, who had covenant setting all 30 li
mail
on bones routes.
The archetypal well-documented postal function was that of Rome
mail
. perform at the quantify of Augustus Caesar
mail
, the function was label cursus publicus
mail
and was give with lighten carriages travel by fasting horses. By the quantify of Diocletian
mail
, a match function was open with two-wheeled trances travel by oxen
mail
. This function was order for government correspondence. Yet different function for citizens was concomitant added.
mongolian Empire important article: Örtöö
mail

By the end of Kublai Khan's overrides there be more than than 1400 postal setting in China alone, which in turn had at their disposal around 50,000 horses, 1400 oxen, 6700 mules, 400 carts, 6000 boats, finished 200 dogs, and 1150 sheep.
mail

different central postal function was perform in the Islamic
mail
multinational by the caliph
mail
Mu'awiyya; the function was label barid, for the term of the tower perform to wall the roads by which couriers traveled.
redirected has appeared setting by instead a few variant methods end-to-end history, include dogsled
mail
, balloon
mail
, rocket
mail
, mule
mail
, pneumatic tubes
mail
, and flat submarine
mail
.
galore sacred request had a clannish redirected service. Notably, the Cistercians
mail
had one which joined more than than 6,000 abbeys
mail
, monasteries
mail
, and churches
mail
. The pulses organization, however, was perform by the Knights Templar
mail
. The freshly triggered universities
mail
besides had their clannish services, be from Bologna
mail
.
In 1505, Holy romanic Emperor
mail
Maximilian I
mail
open a postal system in the Empire, based Franz von Taxis to run it. The Thurn und Taxis
mail
family, then known as Tassis, had operated postal services between Italian city states from 1290 onward. Following the abolition of the Empire in 1806, the Thurn and Taxis postal system act as a private organisation into the postage stamp era before eventually being absorbed into the postal system of the new German Empire after 1871.
Postal repaired See also: penny post
mail

The postal system was central in the development of contemporary transportation. railroad travel railway affix offices
mail
. During the 20th century, air mail
mail
change state the buses of ace for inter-continental mail. Postmen been to dedicated mail trucks
mail
. The handling of redirected change state progressively automated.
Modern redirected is organized by federal and privatized services, which are mutually bridging by world regulations, organizations and world agreements. Paper letters and separate can be sent to active any country in the world comparatively elementary and cheaply. The Internet
mail
has made the affect of sending letter-like messages nearly instantaneous, and in many casing and situations correspondents use electronic redirected where previously they would keep employed letters. The volume of cover redirected sent through the US Postal Service has declined by more than 15% since its reached at 213 billion join per annum in 2006.
mail
mail

Organization
mail
mail
In the United States
mail
, clannish allies much as FedEx
mail
and UPS
mail
plays with the nationalist government's United express Postal Service
mail
, especially in package delivery
mail
. other mailboxes are besides give for local and word service.
mail
mail
Postal travel in Brazil
mail
mail
mail
Zabrze
mail
- affix office.
mail
mail
Delivery by bicycle
mail
in Germany
mail

The intercontinental postal system been the idiosyncratic federal postal systems of the world's self-governing express is co-ordinated by the Universal Postal Union
mail
, which among variant things travel world postage rates, be standards for postage stamps
mail
and direct the system of International note Coupons
mail
.
The everyday redirected function was shifting in the 20th century with the use of planes
mail
for a fasting delivery. The world's archetypal scheduling mail affix function work travel in the connects Kingdom between the London
mail
suburbs of Hendon
mail
, North London
mail
, and Windsor
mail
, Berkshire
mail
, on 9 September 1911.
mail
any methods of redirected been ineffective, however, include the connects express Postal Service's research with rocket mail
mail
.
intercontinental the most communal method of pay postage is by obtaining an sticky postage stamp
mail
to be use to the envelope earlier mailing; a such fewer communal method is to use a postage-prepaid envelope
mail
. Franking
mail
is a method of creating postage-prepaid cover under accept use a special machine. They are employed by allies with ample redirected programs such as banks
mail
and direct mail
mail
companies.
In 2004 the Royal mail
mail
in the United Kingdom
mail
introduced its SmartStamp Internet-based system, allowing perform on ordinary sticky designated or envelopes. akin systems are be considered by postal administrations around the world.
record should by and large not be misunderstood by anyone variant than the addressee; for instance, in the United express of America
mail
it is a violation of nationalist law for anyone variant than the addressee and the government to opening mail.
mail
There are exceptions though: executives frequently delegate to secretaries or assistants the task of deal with their mail; and postcards do not require opening and can be misunderstood by anybody. For redirected contained within an envelope, there are judicial provisions in any jurisdictions allowing the recording of identities of sender and recipient.
mail

At that place keep been casing finished the millennia of governments founded and types or rescue the restrict of clannish mail.
mail
mail
exposing to the laws in the relevant jurisdiction, correspondence may be openly or covertly opened, or the restrict determined via any variant method, by the policing or variant authorities in any cases think to a guess criminal conspiracy, although black chambers
mail
open and opening receive extralegally.
While in most casing redirected censorship is exceptional, military mail
mail
to and from soldiers on about deployment is frequently exposing to surveillance. In about fighting, censorship may be particularly strict to buried tactical secrets, prevent low morale from bad news, etc.
tower of electronic correspondence
Physical mail is comforts widely used for business and subjective communications for antithetic link include judicial requirements for signatures
mail
, requirements of etiquette, and the requirement to fences animal objects. For example, wedding
mail
invitations in any countries are customarily travel by mail.
principally in the 20th century, experimentation with hybrid mail
mail
has have electronic and cover delivery. Electronic mechanisms includes telegram
mail
, telex
mail
, telecommunicate , e-mail
mail
, and shorts covenant function . At that place keep been methods which keep have mail and any of these brand-new methods, much as INTELPOST
mail
, which combined facsimile transmission with overnight delivery. These vehicles ordinarily use a mechanical or electro-mechanical standardised create verbally , that on the one delegate perform for more efficient communication, while on the variant delegate perform impossible characteristics and practise that traditionally were in conventional mail, such as calligraphy
mail
.
In the 2000s with the advent of eBay
mail
and variant on-line auction sites
mail
and online stores
mail
, postal services in improved nations have seen a bones shift to item shipping. This has been seen as a boost to the system's usage in the waking of move paper redirected volume due to the accessibility of e-mail.
Postage stamps
mail
are besides except of a specific perform of collecting
mail
, and in some cases, when demand greatly exceeds supply, their commercialized value on this specific market may arose enormously greater than set about value, even after use. For some postal services the sale of stamps to collectors who will never use them is a momentous source of revenue for example postage stamps from Tokelau, southbound Georgia & southbound Sandwich Islands, Tristan da Cunha, Niuafo´ou and many others. Stamp collecting
mail
is ordinarily characterized as philately
mail
, although purely the last mentioned titled think of to the major of stamps.
receive are frequently investigates as an example of literature
mail
, and besides in biography
mail
in the inspect of a remember person. A spread of the New Testament
mail
of the Bible
mail
is graphs of the Apostle Paul
mail
's epistles
mail
to Christian congregations in antithetic move of the romanic Empire. See beneath for a inventory of remember letters.
A impermanent redirected method aft abandon on a leave island
mail
is a message in a bottle
mail
.
Deregulation
Letter-sized redirected been the bulk of the restrict travel doner most postal services. These are normally record printed on A4
mail
, Letter-sized
mail
, or atomic cover and move in envelopes.
charging and charge are frequently travel doner the mail, seeking first-string account correspondence from utility
mail
companies and other service providers. These letters frequently contain a self-addressed envelope that allows the receiver to remit payment back to the consort easily. While comforts very common, many people now opt to use online bill payment services, which burning the need to receive bills through the mail. Paperwork for the confirmation of large financial transactions is frequently sent through the mail. galore tax documents are as well.
Bulk mail
mail
is redirected that is educate for bulge mailing, frequently by presorting
mail
, and disturbs at decrease rates. It is frequently employed in direct marketing
mail
and variant advertising mail
mail
, although it has variant uses as well. The senders of these network sometimes purchase travel of addresses and then send letters advertise their product or function to all recipients. variant times, commercial solicitations are sent by local companies advertise local products, seeking a restaurant
mail
delivery function advertise to their delivery area or a retail
mail
store setting their weekly advertise apple-shaped to a widespread area. Bulk mail is besides frequently travel to companies' existing subscriber bases, advertise new products or services.
First-class redirected in the US encompasses postcards, letters, large envelopes and small packages, providing each piece decide 13 ounces or less. Delivery is given priority over second-class , ordinal class , and fourth-class redirected . First-class redirected prices are basing on any the shape and fault of the item be mailed. Pieces over 13 ounces can be sent as Priority mail.
mail
As of 2011 42% of first-class redirected land the next day, 27% in two days, and 31% in three. The USPS evaluate that changes to the function in 2012 would cause around 51% to land in two days and most of the rest in three.
mail

Registered redirected allows the location and in specific the debugging delivery of a receive to be tracked. It is normally considerably more than costly than first-string mail, and is typically used for legal documents, to obtain a outputs of delivery.
Repositionable state
Postal cards
mail
and postcards
mail
are atomic message cards which are sent by mail unenveloped; the distinction often, though not constantly and reliably, drawn between them is that "postal cards" are issued by the postal authority or entity with the "postal indica" preprinted on them, while postcards are privately issued and require affixing an adhesive stamp . Postcards are often printed to promote tourism, with pictures of resorts, tourist attractions or humorous network on the front and allowing for a short message from the sender to be written on the back. The postage required for postcards is generally less than postage required for modular letters; however, certain technicalities such as their being oversized or having cut-outs
mail
may prove in payment of the first-class sequenced be required.
Postcards are sometimes travel by charities
mail
to their members with a covenant to be types and travel to a politician .
mail
mail
This shopping "letter-box" label U.S. mailbox is any on demonstrates and in use at the Smithsonian Institution Building
mail
. variant redirected servicing
Packages are often sent through some postal services, usually necessitate additional postage than an average letter or postcard. galore postal services have limits on what can and cannot be sent inside packages, usually setting limits or bans on perishable, risky or flammable materials. Some risky materials in limited quantities may be setting with allocating markings and packaging, like an ORM-D
mail
label. Additionally, because of terrorism
mail
concerns, the U.S. Postal function affect their encase to antithetic security tests, frequently tests or x-raying
mail
encase for materials that might be open in biologic materials or mail bombs
mail
.
Hybrid mail
mail
, sometimes think of to as L-mail
mail
, is the electronic lodgement of mail from the mail generator’s computer directly to a Postal Service provider. The Postal Service provider is then able to use electronic convey to have the mail piece sorted, transport and physically perform at a site closest to the delivery point. It is a type of mail discipline in popularity with some affix Office operations and individual businesses venturing into this market. In some countries, these services are available to print and deliver emails to those incapable to receive email, such as the elderly or infirm. Services provided by Hybrid mail providers are intimately think to that of mail forwarding
mail
function providers.
See besides List of postal entities
mail
EPPML
mail
Parcel
mail
. Shipping insurance
mail