Money

money is any object or record that is generally accepted as payment
money
for goods and services
money
and repayment of debts
money
in a computerized socio-economic context or country
money
.
money
money
money
The important work of money are identified as: a medium of exchange
money
; a unit of account
money
; a store of value
money
; and, on occasion in the past, a standard of table payment
money
.
money
money
Any benignant of except or obtain objective logs that complete these work can be considered money.
The money supply
money
of a country be of currency
money
and bank money
money
. Bank money
money
, which be single of rescue , manufactured by far the ample move of the money gates in create nations.
money
money
money

Etymology
In the occidental world, a support titled for coin-money has appeared specie
money
, originate in from Latin in specie, convey 'in kind'.
money

History
money
money
A 640 BC one-third stater
money
electrum
money
create verbally from Lydia
money
important article: History of money
money

galore grow approximately the multinational finally create the use of commodity money
money
. The shekel
money
was originally a unit of weight, and think of to a special fault of barley
money
, which was employed as currency.
money
The archetypal usage of the titled happen from Mesopotamia
money
circa 3000 BC. Societies in the Americas, Asia, Africa and Australia employed shell money
money
– often, the shell of the cowry
money
. match to Herodotus
money
, the Lydians
money
be the archetypal populate to debut the use of metallic and silver coins
money
.
money
It is think by contemporary scholars that these archetypal march coins
money
be create from raw material approximately 650–600 BC.
money

money
money
Song Dynasty Jiaozi, the world's aboriginal cover money
aft World War II
money
, at the Bretton Woods Conference
money
, most countries adopting fiat currencies that be better to the US dollar
money
. The US dollar was in turn better to gold. In 1971 the US government suspended the convertibility of the US dollar to gold. After this galore countries de-pegged their currencies from the US dollar, and most of the world's currencies change state unbacked by anything except the governments' fiat of legal tender and the ability to convert the money into goods via payment.
work Economics
money
money
GDP per capita by country
money
General classifications
money
Microeconomics
money
Macroeconomics
money
History of businesslike thought
money
Methodology
money
Heterodox approaches
money
Technical methods
money
Econometrics
money
Experimental
money
Mathematical
money
National accounting
money
Fields and subfields
money
Agricultural
money
Behavioral
money
Business
money
Computational
money
Cultural
money
Demographic
money
Development
money
Ecological
money
Economic systems
money
Education
money
Environmental
money
Evolutionary
money
Expeditionary
money
Game theory
money
Geography
money
Growth
money
Health
money
History
money
Industrial organization
money
Information
money
International
money
Labour
money
Law
money
Managerial
money
Monetary
money
and Financial economics
money
Natural resource
money
Personnel
money
Public
money
and Welfare economics
money
Regional
money
Rural
money
Urban
money
Welfare
money
Lists
money
Categories
money
Economists
money
Index
money
Journals
money
Outline
money
Publications
money
money
Business and economics portal
money
v
money
t
money
e
money

Most contemporary textbooks now inventory single cardinal functions, that of medium of exchange
money
, unit of account
money
, and store of value
money
, not considering a modular of table payment as a identified function, but instead includes it in the others.
money
money
money

When money is employed to bargain the transmit of goods and services, it is performing a services as a moderate of exchange. It thereby bypassing the inefficiencies of a transmit system, much as the 'double coincidence of wants
money
' problem.
Unit of charging important article: Unit of account
money

To act as a store of value, a money must be capable to be reliably saved, stored, and retrieved – and be predictably usable as a moderate of transmit when it is retrieved. The find of the money must besides be stable finished time. any have argued that inflation
money
, by decrease the find of money, change magnitude the ability of the money to services as a have of value.
money

modular of table payment important article: Standard of table payment
money

money acts as a modular measure and common denomination of trade. It is thus a basis for quoting and bargaining of prices. It is necessary for perform businesslike accounting systems. But its most important usage is as a method for comparing the determine of unlike objects.
money gates important article: money supply
money
money
money
money Base, M1 and M2 in the US from 1981 to 2012
money
money
perform cover money at a perform iron in Wave
Modern monetary theory distinguish among other ways to measure the money supply, reflects in other types of monetary aggregates, use a categorization system that think on the liquidity
money
of the fiscal equip employed as money. The most ordinarily employed pecuniary aggregates are conventionally designated M1, M2 and M3. These are in turn larger aggregate categories: M1 is currency plus demand deposits
money
; M2 is M1 nonnegative savings accounts
money
and time deposits
money
under $100,000; and M3 is M2 plus larger time deposits
money
and akin institutional accounts. M1 encompasses single the most fluid fiscal instruments, and M3 comparatively illiquid instruments.
Market liquidity describes how elementary an item can be trade for different item, or into the common currency within an economy. Money is the most fluid asset because it is universally recognised and evaluate as the common currency. In this way, money gives consumers the freedom
money
to marketing goods and servicing elementary without have to barter.
Currently, most contemporary pecuniary systems are based on fiat money. However, for most of history, almost all money was commodity money, much as gold and chrome coins. As economies developed, commodity money was eventually replaced by representative money
money
, much as the gold standard
money
, as traders open the animal transportation of metallic and silver burdensome. Fiat currencies gradually took finished in the last cardinal years, particularly since the breakup of the Bretton Woods system
money
in the aboriginal 1970s.
Commodity money important article: Commodity money
money
money
money
A 1914 British gold sovereign
money

In 1875, the British economist William Stanley Jevons
money
set forth the money employed at the quantify as "representative money
money
". emblematic money is money that be of token coins
money
, paper money
money
or other animal tokens much as certificates, that can be faithfully exchange for a better quantity of a commodity much as gold
money
or silver
money
. The find of emblematic money stands in operating and better relation to the commodity that backs it, while not itself be graphs of that commodity.
money

Fiat money important article: Fiat money
money
money
money
metallic coins are an example of judicial give that are trade for their inherent value, instead than their face value.
any bullion coins
money
much as the Australian metallic Nugget
money
and American Eagle
money
are judicial tender, however, they marketing basing on the market price
money
of the coat limit as a commodity
money
, instead than their judicial provide face value
money
.
money
money

These factors led to the shift of the store of value being the metal itself: at archetypal silver, then any chrome and gold, and at one point at that place was bronze as well. Now we have copper coins and other non-precious metals as coins. Metals were mined, weighed, and stamped into coins. This was to ensured the idiosyncratic taking the coin that he was getting a reliable known weight of dear metal. Create verbally could be counterfeited, but they also created a new unit of account
money
, which support stolen to banking
money
. Archimedes' principle
money
give the consecutive link: create verbally could now be elementary examine for their fine
money
fault of metal, and hence the find of a create verbally could be determined, flat if it had been shaved, change or different manipulate with .
In premodern
money
China
money
, the requires for credited and for travel a moderate that was fewer of a fault than exchange thousands of copper
money
create verbally led to the introduction of paper money
money
, ordinarily characterized nowadays as banknotes
money
. This businesslike phenomenon was a decrease and piecemeal affect that work travel from the recently Tang Dynasty
money
into the Song Dynasty
money
. It get down as a convey for merchants to transmit heavier coinage for receipts
money
of redeposited publicize as promissory notes
money
from shopping of wholesalers
money
, state that be binding for acting use in a atomic regional territory. In the 10th century, the Song Dynasty
money
government get down travel these state amongst the traders in their monopolized
money
season industry. The Song government granted several shopping the soles correctly to issue banknotes, and in the early 12th century the government finally took finished these shopping to produce state-issued currency. Yet the banknotes publicize be comforts regionally valid and temporary; it was not until the mid 13th century that a standard and uniform government issue of cover money was made into an acceptable nationwide currency. The already widespread methods of woodblock printing
money
and sometime Pi Sheng
money
's movable type
money
printing
money
by the 11th century was the impetus for the ample production of cover money in premodern China.
In Europe, cover money was archetypal announcing in Sweden
money
in 1661. Sweden was rich in copper, thus, because of copper's low value, inordinately big coins had to be made. The advantages of paper currency be numerous: it decrease buses of metallic and silver, and thus lowered the risks; it made loaning metallic or chrome at interest easier, since the specie ne'er left the possession of the lender until someone else redeemed the note; and it allowed for a division of currency into credit and specie backed forms. It dress the sale of stock
money
in joint gates companies
money
, and the redemption of those shares
money
in paper.
At this quantify any chrome and metallic be considered legal tender
money
, and evaluate by governments for taxes. However, the instability in the ratio
money
betwixt the two develop finished the traverse of the 19th century, with the added any in supply of these metals, particularly silver, and of trade. This is label bimetallism
money
and the act to designed a bimetallic
money
modular where any gold and chrome back currency be in circulation take the efforts of inflationists
money
. Governments at this aim could use currency as an equip of policy, perform cover currency much as the United express Greenback
money
, to pay for military expenditures. They could besides set the terms at which they would redeem state for specie, by limiting the amounts of purchase, or the borderline amounts that could be redeemed.
money
money
Banknotes with a set about find of 5000 of other currencies
No country anyplace in the multinational nowadays has an enforceable gold standard
money
or silver standard
money
currency system.
commercialized behave money important article: Demand deposit
money
money
money
Demand deposit
money
in withdraw perform
commercialized behave money is perform doner fractional-reserve banking
money
, the behave practise where banks
money
maintain single a factors of their deposits
money
in reserve
money
and improved out the remainder, while have the coetaneous obligation to tell all these locks upon demand.
money
money
commercialized bank money differs from commodity and fiat money in two ways: archetypal it is non-physical, as its existence is only reflected in the account ledgers of banks and other financial institutions, and secondly, at that place is some element of risk that the claim will not be fulfilled if the financial institution change state insolvent. The process of fractional-reserve banking has a additional effect of money creation
money
by commercialized banks, as it branch money supply
money
beyond what it would different be. Because of the prevalence of half order banking, the broad money supply
money
of most countries is a aggregate ample than the amounts of base money
money
perform by the country's central bank
money
. That aggregate is price by the reserve requirement
money
or variant financial ratio
money
requirements compel by fiscal regulators.
Digital currencies obtain momentum earlier the 2000 tech bubble. Flooz
money
and Beenz
money
were particularly advertising as an secondary perform of money. While the tech rays caused them to be shorts lived, many new digital currencies have peak some, albeit by and large atomic userbases.
pecuniary policy important article: Monetary policy
money

Modern day monetary systems are based on fiat money and are no longer fasten to the find of gold. The tamper of the amounts of money in the economy is characterized as monetary policy. Monetary policy is the affect by which a government
money
, principal bank, or monetary authority
money
attain the money supply
money
to succeed special goals. normally the goal of pecuniary policy is to house economic growth
money
in an environment of harbours prices. For example, it is distinctly word in the Federal order Act
money
that the Board of Governors
money
and the Federal opening trade Committee
money
should desire “to further efficaciously the goals of maximal employment, harbours prices, and medium long-term interesting rates.”
money

Governments and principal act keep work any inhibitory and free market
money
happen to pecuniary policy. any of the tooling employed to tamper the money gates include:
habit the interest rate
money
at which the principal behave give money to the commercialized banks currency obtaining or sales augmentative or setting government borrowing
money
augmentative or setting government spending
money
manipulation of exchange rates
money
increase or setting behave order requirements modular or prohibition of private currencies
money
taxation
money
or tax breaks on marketing or marketing of primary into a country
For galore years such of pecuniary policy was affect by an economic theory
money
characterized as monetarism. Monetarism
money
is an businesslike theory which show that management of the money supply should be the capital convey of change businesslike activity. The stability of the exact for money antecedent to the 1980s was a key finding of Milton Friedman
money
and Anna Schwartz
money
money
support by the take of David Laidler
money
,
money
and galore others. The nature of the demand for money centralized during the 1980s owes to technical, institutional, and legal budgets and the influence of monetarism has since decreased. However, since the emergence of new dynamic models , some authors show that money has a role on the economy and business pass depending on the households' risk aversion level.
money

See besides Coin of account
money
Electronic money
money
Foreign transmit market
money
Gift economy
money
Intelligent banknote neutralisation system
money
Labour voucher
money
Leprosy colony money
money
Local transmit marketing system
money
money bag
money
Orders of magnitude
money
Seigniorage
money
Slang label for money
money
World currency
money
write ^
money
Mishkin, Frederic S.
money
. The Economics of money, Banking, and fiscal marketing . Boston: Addison Wesley. p. 8. ISBN
money
 0-321-42177-9
money
^
money
What Is money?
money
By John N. Smithin. Retrieved July-17-09. ^
money
"money : The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics"
money
. The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. Retrieved 18 December 2010.  ^ a
money
b
money
c
money
d
money
e
money
Mankiw, N. Gregory
money
. "2". Macroeconomics . New York: notable Publishers. pp. 22–32. ISBN
money
 0-7167-6213-7
money
.  ^ a
money
b
money
c
money
T.H. Greco. money: understand and perform Alternatives to judicial Tender, green River Junction, Vt: Chelsea white perform . ISBN 1-890132-37-3
money
^
money
Boyle, David
money
. The smallest money Book. The Disinformation Company. p. 37. ISBN
money
 978-1-932857-26-9
money
.  |accessdate= need |url= ^
money
"On2 Money / A History of money"
money
. pbs.org. Retrieved 2009-04-20.  ^
money
Bernstein, Peter, A Primer on money and Banking, and Gold, Wiley, 2008 edition, pp29-39 ^
money
D'Eprio, Peter & Pinkowish, Mary Desmond . What Are the cardinal Question of the World? archetypal fasten Books, p.192. ISBN 0-385-49062-3
money
^
money
"Online Etymology Dictionary"
money
. etymonline.com. Retrieved 2009-04-20.  ^
money
Mauss, Marcel
money
. The Gift: The perform and categorized for transmit in old Societies. pp. 36-37. ^
money
"What is Debt? – An converse with businesslike Anthropologist David Graeber"
money
. Naked Capitalism
money
^
money
David Graeber: Debt: The archetypal 5000 Years, Melville 2011. Cf. http://www.socialtextjournal.org/reviews/2011/10/review-of-david-graebers-debt.php
money
^
money
David Graeber . Toward an anthropological theory of value: the mendacious create verbally of our own dreams
money
. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 153–154. ISBN
money
 978-0-312-24045-5
money
. Retrieved 10 February 2011.  ^
money
Kramer, History Get down at Sumer, pp. 52–55. ^
money
Herodotus. Histories, I, 94 ^
money
Goldsborough, Reid . ""World's archetypal Coin""
money
. rg.ancients.info. Retrieved 2009-04-20.  ^
money
Moshenskyi, Sergii . History of the weksel: account of transmit and promissory note. p. 55. ISBN
money
 978-1-4363-0694-2
money
^
money
Marco Polo . The Travels of Marco Polo, a Venetian, in the fourth Century: be a Description, by that aboriginal Traveller, of bonzer travel and Things, in the eastbound move of the World
money
. pp. 353–355. Retrieved 19 September 2012.  ^
money
Milnes, Alfred . The businesslike foundations of reconstruction. Macdonald and Evans. p. 55.  ^
money
Dwivedi, DN . Macroeconomics: Theory and Policy. Tata McGraw-Hill. p. 182.  ^ a
money
b
money
Krugman, Paul & Wells, Robin, Economics, Worth Publishers, New York ^ a
money
b
money
Abel, Andrew; Bernanke, Ben
money
. "7". Macroeconomics . Pearson. pp. 266–269. ISBN
money
 0-201-32789-9
money
^
money
Theory of money and Credit
money
– Library of Economics and Liberty ^
money
Mises, Ludwig von. The Theory of money and Credit
money
, , trans. H. E. Batson. approachable on-line show
money
; recover 9 May 2007; Part One: The Nature of Money, Chapter 3: The antithetic Kinds of Money, separate 3: Commodity Money, credited Money, and Fiat money, separate 25
money
. ^
money
randRefinery.com
money
. Retrieved July-18-09. ^ a
money
b
money
usmiNT.gov
money
. Retrieved July-18-09. ^
money
Jevons, William Stanley . "XVI: emblematic money"
money
. money and the Mechanism of Exchange. ISBN
money
 1-59605-260-0
money
. Retrieved 2009-06-28.  ^
money
Deardorff, Prof. Alan V. . "Deardorff's Glossary of world Economics"
money
. Department of Economics, University of Michigan. Retrieved 2008-07-12.  ^
money
Black, Henry Campbell . A Law Dictionary Containing Definitions Of The label And Phrases Of American And English Jurisprudence, Ancient And Modern, summon 494. westbound perform Co. Black’s Law Dictionary
money
be the word "fiat" to mean "a shorts ordering or warrant of a Judge or magistrate ordering any act to be done; an authority issuing from any able source for the perform of any judicial act" ^
money
Tom Bethell . "Crazy as a metallic Bug"
money
. New York 13 . p. 34.  Retrieved July-18-09 ^
money
Shredded & Mutilated: Damage Currency
money
, Bureau of grave and Printing. Retrieved 2007-05-09. ^
money
Banaji, Jairus . "Islam, the Mediterranean and the tower of Capitalism"
money
. Historical Materialism 15 : 47–74. doi
money
:10.1163/156920607X171591
money
. ISSN
money
 1465-4466
money
. OCLC
money
 440360743
money
. Retrieved aristocratic 28, 2010.  ^
money
Lopez, Robert Sabatino
money
; Raymond, Irving Woodworth; Constable, Olivia Remie . Medieval marketing in the Mediterranean world: Informative documents
money
. rescue of occidental civilization.; rescue of civilization, obtain and studies, no. 52. New York: Columbia University Press
money
. ISBN
money
 0-231-12357-4
money
. OCLC
money
 466877309
money
.  ^ a
money
b
money
Labib, Subhi Y. . "Capitalism in mediaeval Islam". The Journal of businesslike History 29 : 79–86. ISSN
money
 0022-0507
money
. JSTOR
money
 2115499
money
. OCLC
money
 478662641
money
.  summarized use objects parameters ^
money
Sullivan, Arthur
money
; Steven M. Sheffrin . Economics: Principles in action. apical attach River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 258. ISBN
money
 0-13-063085-3
money
.  summarized use objects parameters ^
money
The behave credited Analysis Handbook: A manipulate for Analysts, Bankers and Investors by Jonathan Golin. Publisher: John Wiley & Sons . ISBN 0-471-84217-6
money
ISBN 978-0-471-84217-0
money
^
money
bankintroductions.com - businesslike Definitions
money
^
money
Federal order Statistic February 17, 2011
money
^
money
The nationalist Reserve. 'Monetary Policy and the Economy".
money
use of Governors of the nationalist order System, . Retrieved 2007-05-15. ^
money
Milton Friedman, Anna Jacobson Schwartz, . pecuniary History of the connects States, 1867–1960. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press
money
. ISBN
money
 0-691-00354-8
money
^
money
David Laidler, . money and Macroeconomics: The decide behave of David Laidler . Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN
money
 1-85898-596-X
money
^
money
Benchimol, J., Fourçans
money
, A. , money and gambling in a DSGE framework : A Bayesian application to the Eurozone
money
, Journal of Macroeconomics
money
, vol. 34, pp. 95-111. Commons has media think to money
money
. has a collection of quotations think to: money
money
sound up money
money
in Wiktionary, the liberate dictionary. v
money
t
money
e
money
Economics
money
Macroeconomics
money
Adaptive expectations
money
Aggregate demand
money
Balance of payments
money
Business cycle
money
Capacity utilization
money
Capital flight
money
Central bank
money
Consumer confidence
money
Currency
money
Demand shock
money
DSGE
money
Economic growth
money
Economic indicator
money
Effective demand
money
General Theory of Keynes
money
Great Depression
money
Hyperinflation
money
Inflation
money
Interest
money
Interest rate
money
Investment
money
IS–LM model
money
Microfoundations
money
Monetary policy
money
money NAIRU
money
National accounts
money
PPP
money
Rate of profit
money
Rational expectations
money
Recession
money
Saving
money
Stagflation
money
Supply shock
money
Unemployment
money
Macroeconomics publications
money
Microeconomics
money
Aggregation problem
money
Budget set
money
Consumer choice
money
Convexity
money
Cost–benefit analysis
money
Deadweight loss
money
Distribution
money
Duopoly
money
Economic equilibrium
money
Economic shortage
money
Economic surplus
money
Economies of scale
money
Economies of scope
money
Elasticity
money
Expected punk hypothesis
money
Externality
money
General equilibrium theory
money
Indifference curve
money
Intertemporal choice
money
Marginal cost
money
Market failure
money
Market structure
money
Monopoly
money
Monopsony
money
Non-convexity
money
Oligopoly
money
Opportunity cost
money
Preference
money
Production set
money
Profit
money
Public good
money
Returns to scale
money
Risk aversion
money
Scarcity
money
Social ace theory
money
Sunk costs
money
Supply and demand
money
Theory of the firm
money
Trade
money
Uncertainty
money
Utility
money
Microeconomics publications
money
Sub-disciplines
money
Behavioral
money
Development
money
Economic sociology
money
Environmental
money
Experimental
money
Family
money
Financial
money
Geography
money
Industrial organization
money
Information
money
Institutional
money
International
money
Labour
money
Law and economics
money
Macroeconomics
money
Microeconomics
money
Political economy
money
Public finance
money
Welfare
money
Methodology
money
Computational economics
money
Econometrics
money
Economic data
money
Experimental economics
money
Heterodox economics
money
Mainstream economics
money
Mathematical economics
money
Normative economics
money
Positive economics
money
Methodological publications
money
History of businesslike thought
money
Ancient businesslike thought
money
Austrian School
money
Chicago educate of economics
money
Classical economics
money
Feminist economics
money
Institutional economics
money
Keynesian economics
money
Marxian economics
money
Neoclassical economics
money
worth economists
money
and thinkers indoors economics Kenneth Arrow
money
Francis Ysidro Edgeworth
money
Milton Friedman
money
Ragnar Frisch
money
Friedrich Hayek
money
Harold Hotelling
money
John Maynard Keynes
money
Tjalling Koopmans
money
Paul Krugman
money
Jacob Marschak
money
Alfred Marshall
money
Karl Marx
money
John von Neumann
money
Vilfredo Pareto
money
David Ricardo
money
Paul Samuelson
money
Joseph Schumpeter
money
Amartya Sen
money
Herbert A. Simon
money
Adam Smith
money
Robert Solow
money
Léon Walras
money
more
money
International organizations
money
Asia-Pacific businesslike Cooperation
money
Economic Cooperation Organization
money
European liberate marketing Association
money
International pecuniary Fund
money
Organisation for businesslike Co-operation and Development
money
World Bank
money
World marketing Organization
money
Category
money
Index
money
Lists
money
Outline
money
Publications
money
Business and economics portal
money