Roman trade with india

roman trade with india through the overland caravan routes via Anatolia
roman trade with india
and Persia
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, though at a relational percolates analyze to concomitant times, predate the confederate marketing transport via the Red Sea
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and monsoons which been approximately the get down of the Common Era
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following the decide of Augustus
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and his conquest
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of Egypt
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in 30 BCE.
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romanic and grecian traders help the ancient Tamil country
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and Sri Lanka
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, shopping marketing with the oversea Tamil
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express of the Pandyan
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, Chola
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and Chera
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dynasties and establishing marketing settlements
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which get marketing with India by the Greco-Roman world
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since the quantify of the Ptolemaic dynasty
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a few decades earlier the be of the Common Era
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and be desire aft the travel of the Western romanic Empire
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.
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As rescue by Strabo
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, Emperor Augustus
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of Rome
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conventional at Antioch
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an ambassador from a southbound Indian King label Pandyan of Dramira. The country of the Pandyas, Pandi Mandala, was set forth as Pandyan Mediterranea in the Periplus
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and Modura Regia Pandyan by Ptolemy.
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They besides outlive Byzantium
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's loss of the ports of Egypt
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and the Red Sea
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alto the forces of the Muslim conquests
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. then aft the break up of communications betwixt the Axum and Eastern romanic Empire
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in the 7th century, the Christian kingdom of Axum
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cut into a slow decline, fading into obscurity in occidental sources. It survived, despite forces from Islamic forces, until the 11th century, when it was reconfigured in a dynastic squabble.
underlines
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The Seleucid and the Ptolemaic dynasties manipulate marketing communicate to India earlier the establishment of romanic Egypt.   Kingdom of Ptolemy
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  Kingdom of Seleucus
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The Periplus Maris Erythraei
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think of a quantify when sea marketing betwixt India and Egypt did not refer operating sailings.
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The cargo alto these situations was setting to Aden
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:
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“ Aden - Arabia Eudaimon was called the fortunate, be once a city, when, because setting broken happen from India to Egypt
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nor did those from Egypt act to go favor but only happen as far as this place, it conventional the cargoes from both, conscionable as Alexandria
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obtaining goods travel from outdoors and from Egypt. ”
Prior to Roman expansion, India had open strongest maritime marketing with other countries. The dramatic increase in Indian ports, however, did not occur until the opening of the Red Sea by the Greeks and the Romans and the attainment of geographical knowledge concerning India’s seasonal monsoons. In fact, the first two centuries of the Common era tell this increase in marketing betwixt western India and Rome. This expansion of marketing was due to the comparative peace open by the Roman Empire during the time of Augustus , which allowed for new explorations. Thus, archeologists, with evidence from artifacts and ancient literature, suggest that a significant commercial relationship existed betwixt ancient western India and Rome.
Onshore and offshore explorations have been travel out around Bet Dwarka Island since 1983.The finds discovered includes stolen and stone deprecated buried in sediment and considered to be anchors due to their axial holes. Though it is formulated that the remains of the shipwreck’s hull survived, offshore explorations in 2000 and 2001 have yielded seven differently-sized amphoras, two stolen anchors, forty-two stone anchors of different types, a gates of potsherds, and a circular stolen ingot. The remains of the seven amphoras were of a thick, coarse fabric with a rough surface, which was used for exporting wine and olive oil from the Roman Empire. Archeologists have concluded that most of these were wine amphoras, since olive oil was in fewer demand in India.
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A create verbally of Trajan
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, open unneurotic with create verbally of the Kushan
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ruler Kanishka
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, at the Ahin Posh
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buddhistic Monastery, Afghanistan
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.
Since one essential sail against the dress gulfs of western India, circumstantial large boats were used and travel development was demanded. At the entrance of the gulf, large ships called trappaga and cotymba helped guide foreign vessels safely to the harbor. These ships were capable of relatively long coastal cruises, and several seals have depicted this write of ship. In each seal, parallel bands were suggested to constitute the beam of the ship. In the center of the vessel is a only mast with a tripod base.
The discoveries open on Bet Dwarka and on variant areas on the western glide of India strongly indicate that at that place were strong Indo-Roman trade relations during the first two centuries of the Common era. The 3rd century, however, was the exchange of the Indo-Roman trade. The sea-route between Rome and India was shut down, and as a result, the trading change by reversal to the time antecedent to Roman expansion and exploration.
Establishment
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Create verbally of the romanic emperor Augustus
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open at the Pudukottai
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hoard. British Museum
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.
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Indian write of an aureus
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of Faustina
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, 2nd century CE. British Museum.
The marketing been by Eudoxus of Cyzicus
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in 130 BCE have increasing, and match to Strabo :
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“ "At any rate, when Gallus
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was prefect of Egypt, I attach to him and moving the Nile
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as far as Syene
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and the frontiers of Kingdom of Aksum
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, and I larn that as galore as one cardinal and eight vessels be moving from Myos Hormos
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to India, whereas formerly, alto the Ptolemies
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, single a dead few venture to underwriting the moving and to travel on trade in Indian merchandise." ”
"India, China and the Arabian peninsula lead one cardinal cardinal sesterces
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from our empire per annum at a blimpish estimate: that is what our luxuries and women be us. For what factors of these marketing is intend for sacrifices to the gods or the spirit of the dead?" - Pliny, Historia Naturae 12.41.84.
roman trade with india

metallic create verbally of Justinian I
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unveils in India prospective in the south.
marketing of abroad animals
The cardinal important romanic ports refer with eastbound marketing be Arsinoe
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, Berenice
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and Myos Hormos
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. Arsinoe was one of the aboriginal trading involves but was shortly eclipsing by the more than elementary approachable Myos Hormos and Berenice.
Arsinoe
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travel of Egyptian Red Sea ports, include Alexandria and Berenice.
Arsinoe was finally eclipsing by the travel prominence of Myos Hormos.
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The navigation to the union ports, much as Arsinoe-Clysma, change state harder in comparison to Myos Hormos due to the union moving in the Gulf of Suez
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.
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Go to these union ports show cumulative difficulties much as shoals
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, reefs
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and dangerous currents
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.
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Myos Hormos and Berenice
The travel of Berenice, since its discovery by Belzoni , has appeared major with the burning happen Ras Banas
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in confederate Egypt.
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However, the extinct location of Myos Hormos is contested with the latitude and longitude computerized in Ptolemy
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's Geography
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further Abu Sha'ar and the be computerized in classical literature
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and satellite images
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tell a equiprobable identification with Quseir el-Quadim at the end of a improved road from Koptos
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on the Nile
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.
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The Quseir el-Quadim site has further appeared think with Myos Hormos following the excavations at el-Zerqa, principal on the route, which have display ostraca
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directive to the conclusion that the port at the end of this road may keep appeared Myos Hormos.
roman trade with india

Indian ports
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romanic join of pottery from Arezzo
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, Latium
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, open at Virampatnam, Arikamedu
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. Musee Guimet
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.
marketing with Barigaza, alto the tamper of the Indo-Scythian
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Western Satrap
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Nahapana
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, was particularly flourishing:
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“ At that place are imported into this market-town , wine, Italian preferred, also Laodicean and Arabian; copper, tin, and lead; coral and topaz; thin clothing and inferior sorts of all kinds; bright-colored girdles a cubit wide; storax, sweet clover, flint glass, realgar, antimony, metallic and silver coin, on which at that place is a profit when exchanged for the money of the country; and ointment, but not very expensive and not much. And for the King at that place are brought into those places very expensive vessels of silver, singing boys, beautiful maidens for the harem, fine wines, thin clothing of the finest weaves, and the choicest ointments. At that place are exported from these places spikenard, costus, bdellium, ivory, agate and carnelian, lycium, cotton cloth of all kinds, silk cloth, mallow cloth, yarn, long pepper and such other things as are brought here from the various market-towns. Those bound for this market-town from Egypt forms the voyage favorably about the month of July, that is Epiphi. - Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, paragraph 49. ” Muziris
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Muziris, as show in the Tabula Peutingeriana
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, with a "Templum Augusti".
match to the Periplus
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, galore grecian seamen attain an severe marketing with Muziris:
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“ "Then happen Naura and Tyndis, the archetypal marketing of Damirica
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, and sometime Muziris and Nelcynda, which are now of directive importance. Tyndis is of the Kingdom of Cerobothra
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; it is a village in plain sight by the sea. Muziris, of the same Kingdom, be in ships travel there with cargoes from Arabia, and by the Greeks; it is find on a river, distant from Tyndis by river and sea five cardinal stadia, and up the river from the shores twenty stadia" - The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, 53-54
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” Arikamedu
The Rome-India marketing besides saw any cultural transfer which had lasting perform for any the civilizations and others refer in the trade. The Ethiopian
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kingdom of Aksum
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was refer in the Indian Ocean
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marketing speaks and was affect by romanic grow and Indian architecture.
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investigates of Indian influences are circumpolar in romanic work of silver and ivory, or in Egyptian seeking and silk fabrics employed for sale in Europe
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.
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The Indian presence in Alexandria may keep affect the grow but smallest is characterized around the manner of this influence.
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Clement of Alexandria
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think of the Buddha
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in his writings and variant Indian religions
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determine think of in variant texts of the period.
roman trade with india

During the decide of the Roman emperor Hadrian in the 2nd century AD, traders peak Siam , Cambodia, Sumatra, Java, and a few be to have penetrated northward to the coast of China. In AD 161, according to Chinese records, an "embassy" came from the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius to the emperor Huan-ti, bearing goods that Huan-ti gratefully conventional as "tribute".
roman trade with india

Following the Roman-Persian Wars
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, the areas alto the romanic Byzantine Empire
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be equal by Khosrow II
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of the Persian
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Sassanian Dynasty,
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but the Byzantine emperor Heraclius
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recapture them . The Arabs, led by 'Amr ibn al-'As
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, cycle into Egypt in recently 639 or aboriginal 640 CE.
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This inches attach the get down of the Islamic conquest of Egypt
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and the travel of ports much as Alexandria,
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employed to obtain marketing with India by the romanic multinational since the Ptolemaic dynasty.
roman trade with india

The Ottoman Turks
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tamper Constantinople
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in the 15th century , stick the beginning of Turkish control finished the most operating marketing transport betwixt Europe and Asia.
roman trade with india
The Ottomans initially cut off eastern marketing with Europe, leading in trend to the act by Europeans to determine a sea transport approximately Africa, promote the Age of Discovery
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, and the crowning tower of Mercantilism
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and Colonialism
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.
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roman trade with india
Egypt alto the overrides of the Rashidun
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and Ummayad
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Caliphates, travel on the contemporary note borders.   Mohammad ibn Abdullah, 622-632   Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661   Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 See besides
roman trade with india
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Sri Lankan
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imitations of 4th-century romanic coins, 4th-8th century CE. Buddhism and the romanic world
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Chronology of European exploration of Asia
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Indian nautical history
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Sino-Roman relations
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Indo-Roman relations
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Notes ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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e
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f
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g
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Shaw 2003: 426 ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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Young 2001: 19 ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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Lindsay 2006: 101 ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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Curtin 1984: 100 ^
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The cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia By Edward Balfour ^ a
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b
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Holl 2003: 9 ^
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take 2004: 20 ^
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Lach 1994: 13 ^
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Young 2001: 20 ^ a
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b
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"The Geography of Strabo perform in Vol. I of the Loeb modular Library edition, 1917"
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^
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"minimaque computatione miliens centena milia sestertium annis omnibus India et Seres et paeninsula illa imperio nostro adimunt: tanti nobis deliciae et feminae constant. quota enim portio ex illis ad deos, quaeso, iam vel ad inferos pertinet?" Pliny, Historia Naturae 12.41.84. ^
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http://www.villadelcasale.it/
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^
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O'Leary 2001: 72 ^ a
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b
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c
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Fayle 2006: 52 ^ a
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b
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Freeman 2003: 72 ^ a
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b
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c
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d
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Halsall, Paul. "Ancient History Sourcebook: The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: moving and marketing in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the archetypal Century"
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. Fordham University.  ^ a
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b
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"Search for India's past city"
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. BBC. 11 June 2006. Retrieved 4 January 2010.  ^ a
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b
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Huntingford 1980: 119. ^ a
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b
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c
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Lach 1994: 18 ^
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Maritime transport of romanic merchant ships
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^ a
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b
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c
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Kulke 2004: 108 ^
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Farrokh 2007: 252 ^ a
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b
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Meri 2006: 224 ^
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Kulke 2004: 106 ^
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Luttwak 2009: 167
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-168 ^
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The Encyclopedia Americana 1989: 176 write Curtin, Philip DeArmond; el al. . Cross-Cultural marketing in multinational History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN
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 0-521-26931-8
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.  summarized use objects parameters The Encyclopedia Americana
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. Grolier. ISBN
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 0-7172-0120-1
roman trade with india
Farrokh, Kaveh
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. lags in the Desert: past Persia at War. Osprey Publishing. ISBN
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 1-84603-108-7
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.  Fayle, Charles Ernest . A shorts History of the World's setting Industry. Routledge. ISBN
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 0-415-28619-0
roman trade with india
.  Freeman, Donald B. . The Straits of Malacca: Gateway Or Gauntlet?. McGill-Queen's Press. ISBN
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 0-7735-2515-7
roman trade with india
.  Holl, Augustin F. C. . Ethnoarchaeology of Shuwa-Arab Settlements. Lexington Books. ISBN
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 0-7391-0407-1
roman trade with india
.  Huntingford, G.W.B. . The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. Hakluyt Society.  Kulke, Hermann; Dietmar Rothermund . A History of India. Routledge. ISBN
roman trade with india
 0-415-32919-1
roman trade with india
.  summarized use deprecated parameters Lach, Donald Frederick . Asia in the building of Europe: The Century of Discovery. schedule 1. University of Chicago Press. ISBN
roman trade with india
 0-226-46731-7
roman trade with india
.  Lindsay, W S . History of Merchant setting and past Commerce. rigid Media Corporation. ISBN
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 0-543-94253-8
roman trade with india
.  Luttwak, Edward . The formidable Strategy of the Byzantine Empire. Harvard University Press. ISBN
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 0-674-03519-4
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Meri, Josef W.
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; Jere L. Bacharach . mediaeval moslem Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN
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 0-415-96690-6
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.  summarized use objects parameters O'Leary, De Lacy
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. Arabia earlier Muhammad. Routledge. ISBN
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 0-415-23188-4
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.  Potter, David hit . The romanic Empire at Bay: Ad 180-395. Routledge. ISBN
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 0-415-10058-5
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Shaw, Ian
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. The Oxford History of past Egypt. Oxford University Press. ISBN
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 0-19-280458-8
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.  Young, Gary Keith . Rome's eastbound Trade: world Commerce and Imperial Policy, 31 BC-AD 305. Routledge. ISBN
roman trade with india
 0-415-24219-3
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.  favor interpret Lionel Casson, The Periplus Maris Erythraei: Text With Introduction, Translation, and Commentary. Princeton University Press
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, 1989. ISBN 0-691-04060-5
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. Chami, F. A. 1999. “The aboriginal grinding Age on Mafia island and its relationship with the mainland.” Azania Vol. XXXIV. McLaughlin, Raoul. . Rome and the Distant East: marketing transport to the past Lands of Arabia, India and China. Continuum, London and New York. ISBN 978-1-84725-235-7
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. Miller, J. Innes. 1969. The dress marketing of The romanic Empire: 29 B.C. to A.D. 641. Oxford University Press. circumstantial edition for Sandpiper Books. 1998. ISBN 0-19-814264-1
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. Sidebotham, Steven E. . Berenike and the past nautical dress Route. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24430-6
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. Van der Veen, Marijke . Consumption, marketing and Innovation. analyse the botanic be from the romanic and moslem Ports at Quseir al-Qadim, Egypt
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. Frankfurt: Africa Magna Verlag. ISBN 978-3-937248-23-3
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outer think Commons has media think to Indo-Roman marketing and relations
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. English translation of the Periplus Maris Erythraei
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BBC News: fish for India's past city
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EARLY ROMAN, GREEK, AND INDIAN AUTHORS
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v
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t
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e
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move of a series
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on trade routes
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Amber Road
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Hærvejen
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Incense Route
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Kamboja-Dvaravati Route
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King's Highway
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Roman-India transport Royal Road
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Salt road
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Siberian Route
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Silk Road
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Spice Route
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Tea route
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Varangians to the Greeks
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Via Maris
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Triangular trade
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Volga marketing route
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Trans-Saharan trade
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Old season Route
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Maritime Republics
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Hanseatic League
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Grand Trunk Road
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